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Stopping Tax Evasion: Detection Probability Vs Moral Persuasion

Idea posted: October 2017
  • Finance
  • Operations

The authors of this research teach on the CEMS Masters in Management program at the Norwegian School of Economics - and this Idea is part of our CEMS series.

A large field experiment involving Norwegian taxpayers underreporting foreign income reveals that the probability of detection deters the greatest number of potential non-compliant taxpayers; moral arguments sways fewer non-compliant taxpayers but inspires those who listen to significantly increase their reported income. 

Idea #679
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Mary Barra, CEO and Chairperson of General Motors. The first female CEO of a global automaker

New Female CEOs: Quiet Media Coverage Avoids Negative Market Reaction

Idea posted: November 2016
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change
  • Marketing

Research proves the many benefits and advantages of female CEOs, yet markets continue to punish companies for choosing a woman as CEO. A new study shows that individual investor bias is not the problem; instead, the fear of bias in other investors causes markets to react unfavourably. 

Idea #630
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Traders on the New York Stock Exchange, 1963 (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

How Testosterone Leads to Overpricing on Wall Street

Idea posted: June 2016
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

New research shows that testosterone increases the over-confident and over-optimistic impulses of male traders, resulting in higher prices and more frequent bubbles. It also reveals, in general, that we are not always as rational as we believe.

Idea #608
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Quotas to Gender-Balance the Board: Norway’s Drastic Action Worked

Idea posted: April 2016
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change

Although perhaps a drastic move from the perspective of many businesspeople, the Norwegian government’s bold adoption of a 40% quota for women on boards, and its short 2-year implementation phase, had no significant impact — either negative or positive — on short- or long-term corporate performance. 

Idea #602
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Peter Fonda rides a replica of the 'Captain America' Harley-Davidson used in Easy Rider (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Turn Your End-User Innovators Into R&D Partners

Idea posted: May 2015
  • Innovation & Entrepreneurship

From self-customized motorcycles to modified software, end-users have the capabilities to develop and diffuse into their market their innovations. Producers have to choose whether to ignore these innovators or adapt their R&D processes to include them as partners.

Idea #513
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Promotion Vs Compensation: Managing Employee Careers to Benefit the Organization

Idea posted: March 2015
  • Strategy
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

The best companies recognize that personnel policies are interdependent. The decision to promote worthy individuals, for example, cannot be made in a vacuum. Is there room for more managers at the next level? A new mathematical model reveals how decisions on hiring, demoting, promoting, retaining and compensating employees must take into account factors such as the organizational chart and firm size.

Idea #501
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Supply Chain Risk: Diversification Vs Under-diversification

Idea posted: December 2014
  • Operations

When catastrophe strikes a link in the supply chain, companies respond by dramatically diversifying their suppliers — only to eventually consolidate their suppliers as the memory of the disruption fades. This inconsistency is costly and ineffective.

Idea #468
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High CEO Pay Leads to Overconfidence and Poor Results

Idea posted: December 2014
  • CSR & Governance
  • Finance
  • Leadership & Change

A new study shows a negative correlation between high executive incentive pay and company performance: the higher the pay, the worse the future results. This study also pinpoints the culprit behind the negative correlation: CEO overconfidence. The overconfidence of higher-paid CEOs leads to poor investment decisions and unsuccessful M&A initiatives. 

Idea #469
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The Good and Bad Reasons Corporate Cash Is Trapped Overseas

Idea posted: November 2014
  • CSR & Governance
  • Finance

Policy makers are worried that U.S. companies are using Permanently Reinvested Earnings (PRE) as a tax loophole rather than legitimately trying to grow their overseas operations. They are also concerned about cash trapped overseas instead of being invested in the U.S. economy. The SEC is focused on whether companies are using the rules concerning PRE as a means to overstate their profits. New research shows that a majority of companies are serious about overseas growth rather than looking for tax loopholes. However, cash trapped abroad is still a problem for the U.S. economy. 

Idea #458
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Wrestler Frank Leavitt, Chicago, 1924 (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

How CEOs Strong-Arm Their Compensation Consultants to Get What They Want

Idea posted: November 2014
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change

While previous research has never shown a direct link between the hiring of compensation consultants and increased CEO pay, a new SEC requirement allows academics to test more rigorously for a link: and they find it. According to the research, compensation consultants are used by CEOs as the means to justify higher pay.

Idea #457
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Markdown Vs Everyday-Low-Prices: The Impact of Regret and Availability Misperceptions

Idea posted: October 2014
  • Strategy
  • Learning & Behaviour
  • Marketing

The behavioural motives of consumers — such as regret over buying too soon or too late and misperceptions about the product’s future availability — should be considered as companies develop their optimal pricing and inventory strategies.

Idea #453
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Replica of Rushworh's music store in Liverpool, where the Beatles bought their first Gibson guitars (Source: Wikipedia Commons)

When Showrooms Help Online Companies

Idea posted: August 2014
  • Marketing
  • Operations

Nearly every bricks-and-mortar company will have an online presence today. But a few intrepid companies are going in the opposite direction: online companies are starting to open offline showrooms — and research shows the result is a boost in sales… and happy customers.

Idea #434
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The Mexican Stock Exchange (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Why Companies from Emerging Markets Are Putting the Heat on Multinationals

Idea posted: August 2014
  • Strategy
  • Marketing

While multinational corporations typically establish their dominant competitive advantage thanks to their position in the industry and/or access to strategic resources, somehow firms from emerging markets who have neither of these advantages are beginning to dominate globally — or at least compete for domination — in their industries. The reason: while MNCs compete on position or possession, the emerging MNCs are competing on action. They have developed innovative business models, often as a direct result of conditions in their home markets, that give them the edge. 

Idea #427
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Naremon Thepchai Theatre production of Arthur Miller's 'Death of a Salesman', 1971(Source: Wikimedia Commons)|

Do Your Managers’ Responses to Market Results Damage Profits?

Idea posted: August 2014
  • Strategy
  • Leadership & Change
  • Marketing
  • Operations

Self-serving biases can lead managers to make less than optimal decisions when faced with poor results. This can hurt profits as their biases lead to the wrong quality and price responses to market results. However, forward looking executives can take steps to pre-emptively counter those biases when they make their initial price and quality improvement decisions.

Idea #423
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Chinese New Year, Dragon Walk, Hong Kong (Source: Wikipedia Commons)

How Landmarks in Time Help Employees Set Aspirational Goals

Idea posted: July 2014
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

Temporal landmarks — such as the first day of the year, a milestone birthday or the completion of a major project — can spark an attitude of renewed optimism in people that motivates them to seek out and achieve aspirational goals. Managers should take advantage of temporal landmarks to bolster employee development and achievement.

Idea #416
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Queen Elizabeth I of England, by an unknown Dutch artist, c.1575

Why Women Who Blend Gender and Professional Identities Are Better Negotiators

Idea posted: July 2014
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour
  • Operations

Women who believe that their gender and professional identities are compatible are more likely to be successful in negotiations and other professional pursuits than women who are unable to ‘integrate’ their multiple identities.

Idea #417
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'The Times They Are a-Changin', Bob Dylan's third studio album, 1964 (Courtesy: Columbia Records)

What is the Psychology Behind Resistance to Change?

Idea posted: July 2014
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

Successful change does not only depend on how change agents manage the change, but also on employee attitudes toward change, which are shaped by psychological antecedents. Specifically, well-informed employees who have high social support will have a more positive attitude about organizational change efforts.

Idea #419
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1950s office workers, in cats eye glasses (Source: Wikifashion.com)

Happiness at Work: How Daily Reminders Improve Employee Morale

Idea posted: June 2014
  • Learning & Behaviour

Employee happiness improves when employees focus on maximizing their happiness. Deliberately taking steps to maximize happiness at work can lead to positive behavioural changes. Companies can help employees through daily technology-driven individual interventions that are more effective than the occasional company picnic or visit to the stadium.

Idea #410
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Kenya's Faith Chemaoi crosses the finishing line of the 2014 Paris Marathon (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

How Reference Points Motivate Us

Idea posted: June 2014
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

Reference-dependent theories state that individuals evaluate outcomes as gains or losses, depending on a neutral reference point. Making 19 sales in a month is a loss when the goal — the reference point — was 20 sales a month. Data from 10 million marathon finishes provides a field test that confirms the behavioural expectations and implications of these theories, shedding a light on how milestone goals can push individuals to higher performance.

Idea #394
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The Three Wise Men at Nuevos Ministerios Metro and Cercanías station, Madrid (Source: Wikipedia Commons)

Optimal Marketing Claims: The Power of Three

Idea posted: February 2014
  • Learning & Behaviour
  • Marketing

When putting together an advertisement campaign, how many positive aspects of the product should you include? The temptation is to put in as many as possible, but according to this Idea, three is the optimal amount. Add more and you risk raising suspicions in your customers about the authenticity of all of the claims. 

Idea #328
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Search Engine Marketing: Does it Pay?

Idea posted: January 2014
  • Strategy
  • Marketing

Spending on search advertising has skyrocketed in recent years. But experiments conducted by researchers from UC Berkeley, the University of Chicago and eBay Research Labs suggest paid search may not be as effective as is thought. Particularly in the case of well-known brands, it seems it has little or no effect on sales as, in its absence, loyal customers will find other channels to visit the company’s website anyway.

Idea #309
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IP Management Strategies for Profiting from Business Model Innovation

Idea posted: November 2013
  • Strategy
  • Innovation & Entrepreneurship
  • Operations

How do companies protect their innovative business models from competitors? According to this Idea, intellectual property strategies are often utilized to do this, and depending on what type of company, formal or informal strategies can be the most appropriate. This research looks at four types of business model to analyze the role of IP management strategies in profitable business model innovation.

Idea #259
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The Press Gang, George Goodwin Kilburne, 1839-1924 (Source: Burlington Paintings, London)

Should I stay or should I go? The Power of Headhunters

Idea posted: October 2013
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

We can learn much from recent research about the behavioural aspects of top executives when approached by search firms. It suggests that the decline in corporate loyalty – prevalent among lower level employees since the downsizing era of the 1980s – has spread to the upper echelons as well.

Idea #233
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Money for Nothing: The Truth About Investment Consultants

Idea posted: October 2013
  • CSR & Governance
  • Finance
  • Learning & Behaviour

Widely used by retirement plan sponsors and pension fund trustees, investment consultants advise on institutional assets worth trillions of dollars. But their influence is not matched by their performance. New research finds no evidence that they add value to plan sponsors — or provide higher returns for pension scheme investors.

Idea #230
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Singing in the Rain, stage production, Birmingham UK, 2012 (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Bad Weather Means Better Productivity

Idea posted: October 2013
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour
  • Operations

We all know that bad weather often leads to a bad mood, and therefore it must also lead to bad productivity, right? Not so, according to this Idea which suggests that bad weather actually increases productivity. Through a field study and laboratory experiment, researchers show that when the weather is rainy, there is low visibility and extreme temperatures, workers seem to be more, not less, productive.

Idea #226
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Beating Bias through Mindfulness Meditation

Idea posted: September 2013
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

Mindfulness meditation, the practice of clearing one’s mind of all other thoughts but the ‘present moment’, partly by focusing on the physical sensation of breathing, has long been associated with personal feelings of ‘wellbeing’ and positivity. But it has wider, more practical, benefits. New research suggests that leaders who use the technique are more likely to be resistant to the decision-making curse of ‘sunk cost bias’ — and, consequently, more likely to create value.

Idea #225
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If the Price is Right: Charging for Online Content

Idea posted: September 2013
  • Strategy
  • Marketing

Publishers and media owners who provide sought-after online content can profit financially by charging for it – rather than relying on declining online advertising revenues. But it is crucial how a fee-based charging structure is implemented: charge too little and you are missing out on valuable subscription revenue; but charge too much – or for the wrong content – and you will lose viewers, further undermining advertising revenues. The key is for media companies to take a flexible approach, charging optimal fees for selected content

Idea #224
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Participants in the 2008 World Wide Knit Day. Knitters learnt about this event from Ravelry.com, an online community for knitters (Source:Wikipedia Commons)

Social Dollars and Online Customer Communities

Idea posted: September 2013
  • Marketing

Many companies have now launched brand-specific online communities. Using data from a specific retailer, a research team from University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business and Wilfrid Laurier University sought to measure the actual revenues generated by an online community — also known as ‘social dollars’. Their findings confirm the effectiveness and profitability of online communities. Nearly 20% of the revenue from community customers in their research could be traced to their joining the community. Social dollars also persisted over time — the spending was not a temporary spike due

Idea #206
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Anti-fracking activists, Balcombe, West Sussex, where Cuadrilla was drilling an exploratory well, August 2013 (Source: Greenpeace. Photo by Jiri Rezac)

CSR - Why Companies Need Activists

Idea posted: August 2013
  • CSR & Governance
  • Operations

A company’s positive or negative impact on society can enhance or harm its reputation. New research from Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management shows that passionate activists play a key role in ensuring that companies remain socially responsible.  If they push too hard, however, the efforts of these same activists become counterproductive. On the corporate side, the research explains why corporations must never let up their socially responsible activities.

Idea #194
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How Formal Mentoring Affects Workplace Networks

Idea posted: August 2013
  • CSR & Governance
  • Leadership & Change
  • Learning & Behaviour

How do widespread organizational practices like formal mentoring affect employee networking? According to this Idea, formal mentoring programs could provide boosts in visibility, increasing participants’ attractiveness as network partners. However, these benefits seem to arise more for women than men. 

Idea #199
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